Saturday, March 13, 2004

Islamic World, The emergent Islamic civilization

During the caliphate of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (ruled 685 - 705), which followed the end of the second fitnah, and under his successors during the next four decades, the problematic consequences of the conquests became much more visible. Like their Byzantine and late Sasanian predecessors, the Marwanid caliphs nominally ruled the various religious communities but allowed the


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